Greenstone 3.08 Release Notes

Release Name: 3.08

Release Date: 23 Nov 2016.


  • Binaries for Windows, GNU/Linux 32 and 64 bit machines, Mac Mountain Lion/10.8.* and Mac El Capitan (10.11.*). The two Mac binaries are generated on Mountain Lion/10.8.5 and El Capitan/10.11.3 respectively.
    Previous Mountain Lion installers worked on Mac Yosemite/10.10 out of the box, it may therefore install on Maverick too, but this is untested. The Mountain Lion binary however includes tools that, having been built the Mountain Lion system, may not work on Yosemite (or Maverick). For instance, the pre-built wvware does not work on Yosemite. Try the El Capitan binary for that instead.
    The binaries have only been tested. Source distributions and source components compile on the various OS.
    svn tag page trac tag page. Code revision up to 31145. Tag revision: 31150.

Release Candidate History

  • Greenstone 3.08 rc1: Release Candidate 1. Released 26/29 Aug 2016, for the TPDL workshop.
    Binaries for Windows, GNU/Linux 32 and 64 bit machines, Mac Mountain-Lion and Mac El-Capitan. (Mac versions generated on Mountain Lion/10.8.5 and El Capitan 10.11. The former may still work on Mac Yosemite as 3.07 did, but is untested.)
    Download from the snapshots page
    svn tag page trac tag page. Code revision up to 30765. Tag revision: 30768.

Installation Instructions

Installing and running the binary release

  • Download the appropriate release for your operating system and run it.
  • Note to Mac users: The security settings in newer Mac OS versions have been altered to by default disallow users from casually opening and running .dmg executables that are not from Apple itself. When attempting to open the Greenstone binary .dmg file, if it pops up an error warning about security, you will need to set up the Security on your Mac to allow you to run .dmg files downloaded from the internet. Otherwise the Greenstone mac binary will not run. To do this, Go to your Mac's System Preferences. Under "Personal", select Security & Privacy. In the General tab, tick "Allow apps downloaded from Anywhere", then confirm that you want to "Allow From Anywhere". You'll need to be admin to do this, otherwise click on the padlock at the bottom left of the Security & Privacy tab and log in as admin.
  • For Linux, you will need to set the file to be executable before running it. (e.g. chmod a+x Greenstone-3.08-linux)
    • The installer initially unpacks into a temporary directory (/tmp on linux). If you wish to change this, set the TMPDIR environment variable.

Note that in some cases, the following doesn't work

 export TMPDIR=/something/else

Use the following instead

 TMPDIR=/something/else ./Greenstone-3.08-linux

During the installation process you will be presented with several options. For many, the default settings will be sufficient. Some important options are

  • Folder where you want greenstone3 to be installed.
  • Choosing which packages to install.
    • Greenstone3 will install the Apache Tomcat webserver by default. You can choose not to install it, but then you will need to set up your own version of Tomcat to serve Greenstone. We recommend using Greenstone's Tomcat, at least initially while you get everything set up.
    • ImageMagick is bundled with Greenstone for binary web releases for all platforms, and includes JPEG2000 support. You can choose not to install it if you already have ImageMagick previously installed.
    • Ghostscript is now bundled with Greenstone for binary web releases for Windows and Mac. You can choose not to install it if you already have Ghostscript previously installed.
  • Choosing a password for the administration pages. These pages allow the admin user to inspect and manage the list of registered Greenstone users. You can add new users, and change group settings for existing users. Greenstone user registration is needed if you want to use remote GLI login to the Greenstone server, or if you want to make collections/documents only accessible by certain groups of users. (If the password is not set during installation, the default password for the 'admin' user is 'admin'. You can change the password any time after installation, by running the Greenstone 3 server and visiting the Administration pages. See below).

Once you have successfully installed Greenstone3, you can start up the server by choosing Grenstone3 Digital Library from the Start menu (Windows) or running This launches a small server program which starts up Tomcat and launches a browser. A small window pops up which allows you to change some settings for your library and restart the Tomcat server. Closing this program will stop Tomcat running. By default, your library will be available at localhost:8383/greenstone3/library. File→Settings in the Greenstone Server window gives you options to change the port number and which browser it uses by default. More notes about running Greenstone can be found in the README.txt file in the top level Greenstone folder.

To build collections, run GLI from the Start menu (Windows) or by running gli/ in the top level Greenstone3 folder. Tutorial exercises about building collections in Greenstone 3 can be found here. Make sure you select the Greenstone3 tab at the top if it is not already selected.

Installing and running GS3.08 on Mac Maverick and Yosemite machines

From GS3.07rc2 onwards, we're including a JRE with Mac Mountain Lion binaries, so that the 3.08 Mountain Lion binaries should work on Maverick and Yosemite machines out of the box. (At present the source code still does not compile up on these newer Mac Operating Systems.)

Installing in text-only mode

Adding source code to a binary release

Installing a source release

Further instructions

Changing the admin password

Login to the administration page, 'edit' the admin account, and click 'change password'. Alternatively, you can login as admin via the login button at the top right of each page. Once you are logged in, this button will change to say 'admin'. Click this button and select 'account settings'. From there, you can select 'change password'.

Setting up your Greenstone OAI Server and using GLI to download over OAI from a Greenstone server

In Greenstone 3, collections should be available over OAI by default. Their collectionConfig.xml files already specify that each collection is OAI enabled, through use of an OAIPMH serviceRack element. If you want to disable a collection from being accessibile over OAI, comment out the OAIPMH serviceRack element in that collection's collectionConfig.xml. You would do so by embedding the entire element in comment markers:

    <serviceRack name="OAIPMH">

If you wish to validate the Greenstone 3 OAIServer, edit resources/oai/OAIConfig.xml to add in the adminEmail property to contain the email to where test results should be sent. Also set the repositoryId field to a ID name you want (e.g. to greenstone), beware that there are some naming conventions that govern valid values for repositoryID. If testing the behaviour of the resumptionToken, set the resumeAfter element to a low value like 5. Then restart the Greenstone server.

To validate your OAI server, visit Your server must be available over the internet to do this. The machine on which you're running the Greenstone 3 server will have to have its firewall and virtual server (port-forwarding) settings set up such that the Greenstone server can be made accessible to the outside world.

Setting up your Greenstone 3 OAI Server is covered in further detail in the tutorial

For further information on your Greenstone OAI Server, please read through OAI support.

Setting up a remote Greenstone 3 server

This will allow remote client-GLI applications to connect to your Greenstone server, to remotely create and upload new collections to be built and hosted by your server machine.

Remote Greenstone 3 Server

To install the server-side functionality:

1. If you're on Windows, you will need to teach Greenstone where the perl executable is.

You can do this either manually, by editing a couple of Greenstone config files as explained just below, or you could run the Greenstone server once and press Enter Library button to visit your library home page. Doing so will automatically set up the perl path in various Greenstone files.

To do this manually on Windows,

a. Open Tomcat's conf/web.xml file for editing (found in greenstone3/packages/tomcat/conf folder, if installed in the default location), as you may need to specify the full path of the Perl library for the parameter "executable" of CGIServlet. This takes the form:

        <param-value>C:\Program Files\greenstone3\gs2build\bin\windows\perl\bin\perl.exe</param-value>

b. Edit the first line of the greenstone3/web/WEB-INF/cgi/ file and specify the full path of the perl binary. On Windows this will be (if installed in the default location):

#!C:\Program Files\greenstone3\gs2build\bin\windows\perl\bin\perl -w

2. Make the Greenstone "collect" directory, located in web/sites/localsite, writeable by the webserver user.

On Unix, use chmod.

On Windows, run in a DOS prompt:

cacls "C:\Program Files\Greenstone3\web\sites\localsite\collect" /P Everyone:F

3. Open up the file located in your greenstone installation folder. Edit the tomcat.server property's value to refer to your server machine's hostname instead of leaving it at the default value of "localhost":

# tomcat info

Once the server is started up, this will update the same property in greenstone's web/WEB-INF/classes/ file. Then images viewed from a browser on the client side will refer to the correct location on the remote machine.

(If you don't know what your machine's host name is and you're on Windows, then open a DOS prompt and type:

ipconfig /all

Scroll to the top of the output that gets printed to the screen and note what it mentions for HOST NAME. Also note the DNS Suffix Search List.

Put these two together with a period mark to separate them and use this as the value for your tomcat.server property.)

4. Set up your Greenstone environment if you've not already done so by running gs3-setup.bat in your Greenstone 3 installation folder (source ./gs3-setup.bash on Linux and Mac machines). And then start up your Greenstone 3 server with:

ant start

(or ant restart)

5. Check that Tomcat and Greenstone3 are working correctly by visiting


6. Add some user accounts by visiting the Greenstone 3 home page (http://YOURHOST:YOURPORT/greenstone3/library), clicking the admin link at the top right and logging in. The username is admin. By default, the password is admin too, unless you already set this during the installation process or if you changed this afterwards.

Once logged in, go to the Administration page. You can access this via the link on the home page. (Or you can click the admin link, choose Account Settings, and then click the Administration Page link on the top left. )

Add a new user by providing a new username, setting a password for the user that's a minimum of 3 characters long, and by using the drop-down provided for the Groups field to one or more of the available options, such as personal-collections-editor.

Even if only the admin user wishes to use the client-gli, they will still need to log in to the Administration Page once after installation in order for the user database to be set up.

7. Finally, visit the following page in the web browser to test that your remote Greenstone server is set up properly:


You should get a message saying "Java found" and "Installation OK!" Important: You cannot continue until this is successful, as the Remote Greenstone 3 server will not work without it!

If you get a message saying "Java failed"

  • check that the Java run-time is installed and on the webserver's path. If you get a "500 Internal Server Error", check the error log of your webserver for the cause (greenstone3/web/logs/greenstone.log).
  • consult the more detailed instructions on the Remote Greenstone page for further steps that may be necessary to carry out.


Assuming that the remote Greenstone server is accessible to the outside world and you're not behind a firewall, you can access the remote Greenstone server from a client-gli application installed on any other machine. To do so,

1. Run client-gli quite as you would GLI. It's accessible from the Windows Start menu, otherwise you can run the client-gli script (located at the toplevel of a Greenstone installation) from a terminal.

2. You'll be asked for the URL of the remote Greenstone 3 server that you wish to connect to. This is of the form


It's the same URL as in Step 10 of setting up the remote GS3 server above.

Converting a GS2 collection to GS3 when working with a remote GS3 server

The new Format Conversion Wizard to convert GS2 format statements to GS3 format statements (see this page) only appears when you're working with GLI, not client-GLI. The client-GLI for GS3 will only perform the most basic initial step in the conversion process, which is to preserve the GS2 format statements in inactive XML tags in the new collection's collectionConfig.xml.

However, if you have a local Greenstone 3 installed, you can still manage to convert a remote collection's collect.cfg file to its GS3 equivalent. See here for details.

Important Changes and Bug Fixes

  • changes to run in a lab environment - "web-distributed" - explain more, and link to wiki.
  • lots of display items (for indexes, classifiers etc) now come from dictionaries, rather than being defined in the collectionConfig.xml file. Translations are available for many languages. This enables the translated collection interface to be more complete.
  • gs3 can work off a read only location such as dvd.
  • hierarchy menu with suggestions for metadata editor thanks to Georgy Litvinov
  • a lot of work has been done on getting all the text strings into properties files so the complete interface can be translated.
  • collection groups web/sites/localsite/groupConfig.xml
  • <extraInfo> element in collectionConfig.xml (for eg <naviagationTab type=external-link|frame url='http://xxx'>) add displayItems inside for name and description.
  • support for classifier tabs that are just linksq
  • The raw collectionConfig.xml file can now be edited directly from within GLI: Edit→Edit collectionConfig.xml.
  • Tidied up collection building using manifest files. See the incremental collection building tutorial
  • streamlined compilation, and adjustments to allow Greenstone 3 to operate on Macs with newer security model.

IMPORTANT information

For ease of access this section has been brought across from the 3.07 Release Notes, but not all of it may be relevant to the 3.08 release.


Mac Installer fails

If running the Mac installer results in a message about having failed to copy to /var/folders/zz/ permission denied), then restarting the Mac followed by running the installer once again worked for us, resulting in a successful installation.

Using the command line to reset the admin password when it isn't recognised

If at any stage, your admin password is no longer recognised from the Greenstone Reader interface (the Greenstone pages that you view through the web browser), then you can try to reset your admin password through the command line.

1. On Linux and Mac, open a terminal and use it to navigate to your Greenstone 3 installation folder.

On Windows, you can either open a DOS terminal the usual way and then likewise use it to navigate to your Greenstone 3 installation folder (using the cd command). Or, you could open a Windows File Explorer first and use it to navigate to your Greenstone 3 installation. Then you could easily get a DOS prompt at that File Explorer location, as explained at stackoverflow:

Hold Shift while Right-Clicking a blank space in the desired folder to bring up a more verbose context menu. One of the options is Open Command Window Here. This works in Windows Vista, 7, 8, and 10.

2. Now that your terminal is at the GS3 installation folder, you can type the following command in the terminal:

ant config-admin

4. It will ask for a new admin password. Type the new password and hit enter.

5. Once you restart the server, try out your new password.

Useful information

When you've built a collection of documents, you may discover that there appears to be a copy of all these documents in the collection's import, archives and index subfolders and wonder whether Greenstone could really be so inefficient with space as to keep 3 copies to everything. As it happens though, Greenstone uses hard-links both on Linux and Windows, in order to keep just one set of your documents. Then it simply hardlinks to these, instead of making copies. By default, Windows doesn't show you when files on your filesystem are hard-linked. If you choose to install the Windows extension program Link Shell Extension (LSE), it will put red arrows on files that are hard linked.

Known Issues

Changes to Tomcat port affects Solr collections

Currently when you change your tomcat port (either in, or using File→Settings in the Server program) the changes won't propagate to Solr which will still try to use the old port number. If you make changes to Tomcat port, please shutdown and restart the server from the Start Menu. If you are starting from within a terminal, you will need to shut down Greenstone and restart it from a fresh terminal.

Web document editor requires perl CGI module

Editing documents through the web interface requires your system perl to have CGI installed. Without CGI, you can edit metadata and save, but your changes won't have been applied. You can tell this is the case by looking at the build log files in the collection, e.g. greenstone3/web/sites/localsite/collect/<collname>/log/build_log.1480553047299.txt. The message might say something like

Document Editor Build 
Command = /bin/perl -S /greenstone/pei-jones/web/WEB-INF/cgi/ 

ERROR: Can't locate in @INC (@INC contains: /usr/local/lib64/perl5 /usr/local/share/perl5 /usr/lib64/perl5/vendor_perl /usr/share/perl5/vendor_perl /usr/lib64/perl5 /usr/share/perl5 .) at ./ line 9.
BEGIN failed--compilation aborted at ./ line 9.
Compilation failed in require at (eval 1) line 1.

If you get this error, then please install the CGI module for your system perl.

Work Arounds

Filenames in collections should not contain &, < and >

In order to have better handling of different file and filename encodings, a sacrifice was made of being unable to support &, < and > characters in filenames. Filenames with such characters will make metadata.xml invalid, as a result of which, GLI won't be able to reload the metadata therein.

A workaround is to use "and" in place of "&" in filenames. And either use different characters for < and >, such as [ and ] or ( and ), or leave them out from filenames.

Greenstone applets (Phind, Collage) crash Firefox

See bugzilla report.

If attempting to view a java applet (like Collage or Phind phrase classifiers) crashes Firefox, then make sure you have the Java Applet plugin installed. If it is installed and Firefox is still crashing, then open firefox and visit the page


Scroll down to the property:

Set it to true (rightclick and choose toggle).

PDF to image conversion error on Linux

If you've configured a PDFPlugin to convert PDFs to images, increase the verbosity in Import Options and Build Options to 5 in GLI's Create panel.

When rebuilding the collection, check to see if you encounter the following error message mentioning that 'memory allocation failed', a 'corrupt image' at 'ReadPNGImage' and 'PostScript delegate failed':> Converting pdf05-notext.pdf to pagedimg_jpg format> calling cmd "/usr/bin/perl" -S -verbose 5 -pdf_zoom 2 -errlog "/research/myfolder/gs3-svn-12Sep2013/web/sites/localsite/collect/Enhanced-PDF/tmp/1378957949/err.log" -output pagedimg_jpg "/research/myfolder/gs3-svn-12Sep2013/web/sites/localsite/collect/Enhanced-PDF/tmp/1378957949/pdf05-notext.pdf"> Error executing> pdfpstoimg error log:> convert: memory allocation failed `/tmp/magick-31829ofGIFuaNZ1xy1' @ error/png.c/ReadOnePNGImage/2160.> convert: corrupt image `/tmp/magick-31829ofGIFuaNZ1xy1' @ error/png.c/ReadPNGImage/3794.> convert: Postscript delegate failed `/research/myfolder/gs3-svn-12Sep2013/web/sites/localsite/collect/Enhanced-PDF/tmp/1378957949/pdf05-notext.pdf': No such file or directory @ error/pdf.c/ReadPDFImage/681.> convert: no images defined `/research/myfolder/gs3-svn-12Sep2013/web/sites/localsite/collect/Enhanced-PDF/tmp/1378957949/pdf05-notext/pdf05-notext.jpg' @ error/convert.c/ConvertImageCommand/3068.> Convert error for /research/myfolder/gs3-svn-12Sep2013/web/sites/localsite/collect/Enhanced-PDF/tmp/1378957949/pdf05-notext.pdf> Could not convert pdf05-notext.pdf to pagedimg_jpg format> convert: memory allocation failed `/tmp/magick-31829ofGIFuaNZ1xy1' @ error/png.c/ReadOnePNGImage/2160.> convert: corrupt image `/tmp/magick-31829ofGIFuaNZ1xy1' @ error/png.c/ReadPNGImage/3794.> convert: Postscript delegate failed `/research/myfolder/gs3-svn-12Sep2013/web/sites/localsite/collect/Enhanced-PDF/tmp/1378957949/pdf05-notext.pdf': No such file or directory @ error/pdf.c/ReadPDFImage/681.> convert: no images defined `/research/myfolder/gs3-svn-12Sep2013/web/sites/localsite/collect/Enhanced-PDF/tmp/1378957949/pdf05-notext/pdf05-notext.jpg' @ error/convert.c/ConvertImageCommand/3068.> Convert error for /research/myfolder/gs3-svn-12Sep2013/web/sites/localsite/collect/Enhanced-PDF/tmp/1378957949/pdf05-notext.pdf> Converting pdf05-notext.pdf to html format

If you see the above error message, then:

1. Use a text editor to open your Greenstone 3's gs2build/ext/imagemagick/linux/etc/ImageMagick/delegates.xml

2. Find the line that would say:

<delegate decode="ps:alpha" stealth="True" command="&quot;gs&quot; -q -dQUIET -dSAFER -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -dNOPROMPT -dMaxBitmap=500000000 -dAlignToPixels=0 -dGridFitTT=2 &quot;-sDEVICE=pngalpha&quot; -dTextAlphaBits=%u -dGraphicsAlphaBits=%u &quot;-r%s&quot; %s &quot;-sOutputFile=%s&quot; &quot;-f%s&quot; &quot;-f%s&quot;"/>

The above specifies the PostScript delegate for PNG images. It has the sDEVICE set to pngalpha.

3. Change the line to:

<delegate decode="ps:alpha" stealth="True" command="&quot;gs&quot; -q -dQUIET -dSAFER -dBATCH -dNOPAUSE -dNOPROMPT -dMaxBitmap=500000000 -dAlignToPixels=0 -dGridFitTT=2 &quot;-sDEVICE=**pnmraw**&quot; -dTextAlphaBits=%u -dGraphicsAlphaBits=%u &quot;-r%s&quot; %s &quot;-sOutputFile=%s&quot; &quot;-f%s&quot; &quot;-f%s&quot;"/>

The above changes the sDevice to pnmraw.

4. Save the file and re-run the build now.

Updated Translations

Thanks to the following people for new and updated translations since 3.07:

  • Yvan Arnaud and Emmanuel Ngoi for French translations
  • Tomáš Fiala for Slovak translations
  • Yamaguchi Gaku for Japanese translations
  • Maciej Jaros for Polish translations
  • Georgy Litvinov for Russian translations
  • Diego Spano for Spanish translations
  • Lavji Zala for Gujarati translations